• 0


  • 0




愛情的面貌──讀Anna Karenina

如果說Tolstoy戰爭與和平是一部史詩,那麼”Anna Karenina”開頭第一句話:「All happy families are alike; each unhappy family is unhappy in its own way.」就點出這本書涵蓋的層面不似戰爭與和平那般廣。但是他筆下的人物,有血有肉,有歡喜有困擾,細細讀來,所受的震撼,不下於戰爭與和平
Anna Karenina嫁給大她十二歲、地位顯赫的Karenin(俄國人的名字落落長,許多時候first name patronymic(中間的名字,通常是父親的first name)一起稱呼,在此我就大多直稱男生的姓,女生則用first name的暱稱),育有一子,平淡的婚姻中沒有愛情。她在小說的第一次出現就是與後來結孽緣的Vronsky初次見面:
 “Vronsky . . . . stopped to allow a lady to leave. With the habitual flair of a worldly man, Vronsky determined from one glance at this lady’s appearance that she belonged to high society.  He excused himself and was about to enter the carriage, but felt a need to glace at her once more — not because she was very beautiful, not because of the elegance and modest grace that could be seen in her whole figure, but because there was something especially gentle and tender in the expression of her sweet-looking face as she stepped past him.  As he looked back, she also turned her head. Her shining grey eyes, which seemed dark because of their thick lashes, rested amiably and attentively on his face, as if she recognized him, and at once wandered over the approaching crowd as though looking for someone.  In that brief glance Vronsky had time to notice the restrained animation that played over her face and fluttered between her shining eyes and the barely noticeable smile that curved her red lips. It was as if a surplus of something so overflowed her being that it expressed itself beyond her will, now in the brightness of her glance, now in her smile.  She deliberately extinguished the light in her eyes, but it shown against her will in a barely noticeable smile.”
這段描述,表現了Anna懾人的美麗,以及無人能擋的魅力。但是透過她細微的表情,能了解這個女人內心容易撥動,以及不易駕馭渴望,(這段兩次用到”will”這字,一次是”beyond her will”, 一次是”against her will”.)點出了後來她與Vronsky陷入愛戀的無可控制與無奈。
            “She felt so sinful, so guilty, that nothing was left her but to humiliate herself and beg forgiveness; and as now there was no one in her life but him, to him she addressed her prayer for forgiveness.  Looking at him, she had a physical sense of her humiliation, and she could say nothing more.  He felt what a murderer must feel, when he sees the body he has robbed of life. That body, robbed by him of life, was their love, the first stage of their love.  There was something awful and revolting in the memory of what had been bought at this fearful price of shame. Shame at their spiritual nakedness crushed her and infected him. But in spite of all the murderer's horror before the body of his victim, he must hack it to pieces, hide the body, must use what he has gained by his murder.”
“In the coach was an old lady dozing in one corner, and at the window, evidently only just awake, sat a young girl holding in both hands the ribbons of a white cap. With a face full of light and thought, full of a subtle, complex inner life, that was remote from Levin, she was gazing beyond him at the glow of the sunrise.
At the very instant when this apparition was vanishing, the truthful eyes glanced at him. She recognized him, and her face lighted up with wondering delight.
He could not be mistaken. There were no other eyes like those in the world. There was only one creature in the world that could concentrate for him all the brightness and meaning of life. It was she. It was Kitty.   …...   There only, in the carriage that had crossed over to the other side of the road, and was rapidly disappearing, there only could he find the solution of the riddle of his life, which had weighed so agonizingly upon him of late.”
這本書中有許多男女之間的感情,有Anna與道貌岸然(但又令人同情)的丈夫;互相折磨的AnnaVronsky;另外Anna的兄嫂* StivaDolly,則是丈夫認為只要經濟上支援家庭,就沒有其他責任,甚至與家庭教師偷腥也無不可;只有LevinKitty是一道清流,他們因為愛情結婚,婚後共同成長,蛻變為更成熟的人。
書中用許多篇幅描述兩幕重要的轉折:一是生,一是死。Tolstoy描述這兩者的折騰與殘酷,讀來驚心動魄,尤其描述Levinbrother Nikolai死亡的過程,是所有章節中唯一有標題的,就是”Death”一字,赤裸地點出這人生必經之路。這兩個事件對Levin對人生的看法有很大的衝擊,然而兩個事件中,從容而勇敢的卻是Kitty,在Levin慌亂與動搖時,給予他支柱與信心。Nikolai嚥下最後一口氣之後,發現Kitty已懷有兒子,是死亡與生命的輪迴;另外LevinAnna唯一一次見面,被她的美麗而蠱惑,回家後Kitty發覺而與Levin吵架(別忘了Anna是從Kitty手中搶走Vronsky的女人),但隨之而來的則是他兒子的誕生。兩個最黑暗的轉折馬上由光明取代,而光亮都是由那擁有明亮雙眼的少女蛻變而成的少婦帶來,絕對不是巧合。
“They gathered up the wet napkins; the nurse picked up the baby and carried him. Levin walked beside his wife and, guilty on account of his vexation, squeezed her hand in secrete from the nanny.”
PS*: 小說中都是寫”brother” ”sister”,長幼的關係很難分清,所以我就假設StivaAnna的哥哥,如果寫錯,還請包涵。